Total quality movements manifest characteristics of both task-focused (scientific management) and people-focused (participative management) models.
K. Lewin has developed the fundamental principle of participative management in the 1920s.
D. McGregor(1960) produced his Theory X-Theory Y attitude model in the 1950s. Theory X is based on the belief that work is inherently distasteful to people, and Theory Y, on the contrary' takes the view that work is as natural as play to people.
C. Argyris produced his A-B behavior pattern model to complement McGregor's work.
LEADERSHIP ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS SUMMARY
Source: Adapted from D. McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, New York: McGraw Hill, 1960, and from C. Argyris, Management and Organizational Development: The Path from XA to YB, New York, McGraw Hill, 1971.
F. Herzberg(1959) developed his motivation-hygiene factors model :
Hygiene factors ("dissatisfier" factors)
must be in place to effect a productive work environment (to avoid dissatisfaction). They do not provide significant motivation ; motivation factors ("satisfier" factors) are :
R. Likert(1961) developed a model for organizational transformation from theory X to theory Y.
Blake and Mouton (1964) developed the Managerial Grid Model that views leadership style as a function of
Blake and Mouton "9,9 management grid position" description :
is necessary for effective quality transformations
The trend over the past few years has been toward situational leadership models.
High productivity work teams tend to have supervisors who allow subordinates freedom to do the job, while relating clear objectives and goals.
S. Covey's principle-centered leadership (PCL) model (Covey 1991) views people as socioeconomic beings.
Without trustwortiness on the part of each individual in the organization, the PCL paradigm and its application will not function.
These models have progressively moved up the hierarchy of Maslow's needs in their emphasis.
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