Management-Leadership-Motivation Models

Total quality movements manifest characteristics of both task-focused (scientific management) and people-focused (participative management) models.

Scientific management:

  • Developed by F.W. Taylor in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
  • Managers do the planning, and workers do the execution.
  • Narrow job definitions, and job specialization.
  • Raised output, cut costs, increased wages, and reduced working hours, but had very limited 'life value" (for workers).

K. Lewin has developed the fundamental principle of participative management in the 1920s.

D. McGregor(1960) produced his Theory X-Theory Y attitude model in the 1950s. Theory X is based on the belief that work is inherently distasteful to people, and Theory Y, on the contrary' takes the view that work is as natural as play to people.


C. Argyris produced his A-B behavior pattern model to complement McGregor's work.




Theory X Theory Y Pattern A Pattern B

1. The typical person inherently dislikes work and will avoid work if possible


1. The typical person likes work and sees work as natural as play or rest 1. Rigid supervision of work 1. Relaxed supervision of work
2.The typical person must be coerced to and directed in work

2. The typical person will exercise self-direction and self-control in work


2. Co-workers are not trusted 2. Co-workers are trusted

3. The typical person perefers to avoid responsibility for work


3. The typical person will seek and accept responsibility in work. 3. High structured work environment 3. Loosely structured work environment
4. The typical person is incapable of producing creative solutions to problems in work 4. The typical person is capable of producing creative solutions to problems in work 4. Little concern for development of coworkers 4. High concern for development of coworkers.

Source: Adapted from D. McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise, New York: McGraw Hill, 1960, and from C. Argyris, Management and Organizational Development: The Path from XA to YB, New York, McGraw Hill, 1971.

F. Herzberg(1959) developed his motivation-hygiene factors model :

Hygiene factors ("dissatisfier" factors)

  • policies and administration
  • supervision
  • salary
  • interpersonal relations
  • working conditions

must be in place to effect a productive work environment (to avoid dissatisfaction). They do not provide significant motivation ; motivation factors ("satisfier" factors) are :

  • achievement
  • recognition
  • work itself
  • responsibility
  • advancement

R. Likert(1961) developed a model for organizational transformation from theory X to theory Y.

Blake and Mouton (1964) developed the Managerial Grid Model that views leadership style as a function of


1. Concern for people, relationships

2. for production, tasks.

Blake and Mouton "9,9 management grid position" description :


Team Management:

Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a "common stake" in organization purpose leads to relationships of trusts and respect


is necessary for effective quality transformations

The trend over the past few years has been toward situational leadership models.

High productivity work teams tend to have supervisors who allow subordinates freedom to do the job, while relating clear objectives and goals.

S. Covey's principle-centered leadership (PCL) model (Covey 1991) views people as socioeconomic beings.


Without trustwortiness on the part of each individual in the organization, the PCL paradigm and its application will not function.

These models have progressively moved up the hierarchy of Maslow's needs in their emphasis.

High Self-actualization
Scientific management
Low Physiological



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